- Keep Furnace in optimum regime of operation.Relationship between inyection velocity coke charging & melting velocity (see Junblüth diagram)
- Avoid excessive temperatures in the casting and reduce overheating.
- Ensure uniform load: The distribution of metal and coke must be uniform during charging.
- Improve the control of charges weight , the inyection flow and metal temperature.
- Minimize air leaks. Supply the correct amount of air is essential for the proper performace of the cupola. It is necessary to take extra care to prevent leaks and ensure efficent operation of the furnace. These losses are common in the hot wind cupola and take place in the exchanger of heat. As result, oxygen in the nozzles should be injected to compesate lost air.
- Avoid vaults formation in the cupola. vaults stickings and jams of the load in charging area creates efficency loses during the melting and ocassionally, even in severe cases stop it completely.
- Improve the Refractory linning. During the melting process, the wear in the refractory linning modifies the dimensions of it; afecting directly to the performance. For this reason minimizing the attack to the linning , is a way of energy saving. The maintanaince of the linning must be taken carefully.
Some of the early designs used completely aluminium structure was built by a Norway company called BJERRING. They only manufactured 4 prototypes until the Lord Raufoss take the control of the company and tried to transfer the advances developed in the space technology of aluminium frame design in cars and buses.
This project could not be held due to lack of resources and technology ( we are talking of 1930s). The first car manufactured using abodywork and structure entirely of aluminium was the PANHARD DYNA, a prototype made in France in 1954. This vehicle was powered by a two stroke engine, weiged only 629 kgr. and could carry 6 people.